9 min read

Beyond Medical Devices: Understanding Software As a Medical Device (SaMD)

Software as a Medical Device (SaMD) is gaining momentum right now, particularly in Switzerland. In this article, you’ll find all the essential information about SaMD, including specific examples, SaMD types, how they are regulated and what are the challenges of developing such products.
Written by
Mahira Chahine
Published on
January 8, 2024
Read time
9 min read

Switzerland, the heart of medical innovation, is currently making significant strides in the realm of Software as a Medical Device (SaMD). Amid its 3,251 tech startups, 705 are breaking through in the medtech and biotech sectors, as highlighted by Startup. But apart from healthech unicorns, Switzerland is also home to such medical device giants as Roche, Novartis, and Bayer.

As a software development company headquartered in Switzerland, Modeso is keenly observing the evolving landscape of medical devices, particularly those driven by software. In this article, we will delve into the world of SaMD – what it entails, and the challenges and intricacies involved in building one.

What is Software as a Medical Device?

Software as a Medical Device is a category of software specifically designed for medical purposes, such as diagnosing, monitoring, or treating health conditions. Unlike software that’s part of a physical medical device, SaMD operates independently on general computing platforms like smartphones or computers. SaMD is subject to regulatory oversight to ensure its safety and effectiveness in the healthcare domain.

SaMD applications range widely, from diagnostic aid software solutions to health monitoring apps, offering accessibility and efficiency in medical care. Here are some examples of SaMD businesses located in Switzerland.

Innovations from the Swiss healthcare market

The Swiss SaMD landscape is full of innovative solutions and ambitious startups. Here’s a glimpse into some of these pioneers:

1. Ava: Ava specializes in women’s health and fertility. Their wearable device, accompanied by a mobile app, uses machine learning algorithms to predict fertility windows, leveraging physiological data to assist in family planning and monitoring menstrual cycles.

2. MindMaze: This startup combines virtual reality and neuroscience. Their SaMD products focus on neurological rehabilitation, aiding patients recovering from strokes and other brain injuries through gamified therapy sessions.

3. offers AI-powered solutions for patient monitoring and diagnostics. Their technology aids in the early detection of diseases by analyzing various health parameters and providing predictive insights.

4. Sleepiz: Sleepiz is in the field of sleep monitoring and analysis. Their non-contact medical device and software help in diagnosing and managing sleep disorders like sleep apnea, using advanced signal processing techniques.

5. Pipra: Pipra’s focus is on pre-operative risk assessment. They use AI-driven software to predict postoperative complications, especially in neurosurgery, enhancing patient safety and surgical planning.

6. Abionic: Specializing in rapid diagnostics, Abionic’s nanotechnology-based platform provides quick allergic reaction assessments. Their SaMD integrates with a diagnostic device to deliver results in minutes, aiding in urgent medical decision-making.

Now that we’ve had a glimpse of the innovative SaMD solutions emerging from Switzerland, let’s shift our focus to understanding the crucial distinction between SaMD and non-SaMD software within the healthcare sector.

Exploring the differences: SaMD vs. Non-SaMD

In a nutshell, SaMD refers to software intended to be used for one or more medical purposes without being part of a proprietary medical device. In contrast, Non-SaMD software, including Software in a Medical Device (SiMD), comprises applications that either support the functioning of medical hardware or manage health-related data without directly contributing to medical decision-making or patient care.

Understanding the differences between these two categories is essential for grasping their respective roles in healthcare, their regulatory implications, and how they contribute to patient outcomes. Let’s take a closer look at some specific examples to illustrate these differences.

Software that evaluates MRI images and makes diagnosis recommendations. This type of software analyzes medical imaging data to assist in diagnosis, relying on sophisticated algorithms to interpret images. Software that controls an MRI machine (Software in a Medical Device or SiMD). This is the software integral to the operation of the MRI hardware, controlling its functions and operations, but not directly involved in the diagnosis.
A mobile app that monitors a patient’s heart rate or glucose levels and makes treatment recommendations to the patient and/or the patient’s doctor. Such apps not only track vital health data but also interpret it to provide medical advice or recommendations. Software that allows a patient to control their insulin pump based on glucose readings (SiMD). This software is part of the medical device (insulin pump) and is essential for its operation, adjusting insulin delivery in response to glucose levels.
An ML-powered application reviews patient health data and makes treatment recommendations. This software uses AI and ML to analyze health data, potentially identifying treatment options or flagging risks, thereby playing a direct role in patient care. Software that securely stores patient health and treatment history (Digital Health Records or Medical Information System). This software is crucial for data management and storage in healthcare settings but does not actively participate in diagnosis or treatment processes.

Types of SaMD and their classification

When talking about SaMD, there are various specialized types and corresponding classifications to cover. These encompass:

  1. Diagnostic software: Software that identifies medical conditions through data analysis or image interpretation.
  2. Therapeutic software: Relates to medical devices and software for managing patient treatment.
  3. Monitoring software: SaMD for tracking patient data for chronic conditions, classified by intervention necessity.
  4. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) software: Solutions that empower medical professionals with data-driven recommendations.
  5. Health management and wellness apps: Applications aimed at enhancing general health and fitness activities.
  6. Rehabilitation and physical therapy software: Software to aid in physical therapy.
  7. Telehealth and remote monitoring software: Solutions for specialist to provide remote patient care.
  8. Data analytics and research tools: Software solutions for research and data analysis.
  9. Patient record and EHR systems: Tools for managing patient data that ensure data accuracy and accessibility.
  10. Surgical planning and navigation software: Software aimed at improving  surgical precision and reducing the procedure complexity.
  11. Medication management software: Software aimed at supporting effective drug management.
  12. Emergency response and critical care software: Software designed to address essential deficiencies in patient care during public health emergencies.

Due to the significance of regulatory standards in the healthcare technology sector, let’s delve into the regulations governing SaMD and why they are vital.

Regulation of SaMD as medical devices and why it’s important

Regulation of SaMD is a crucial aspect of ensuring patient safety and the effectiveness of these healthcare technologies. IMDRF members, including authorities from Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, and the United States, work together to develop these regulatory guidelines.

Below you can find a table, which includes the regulatory aspect of SaMD and its importance.

Regulatory aspect Importance
Patient safety Ensuring the safety of patients is the primary goal of SaMDs, as these software applications impact medical decision-making, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.
Risk mitigation Regulatory oversight helps identify and mitigate potential risks associated with SaMD, allowing for appropriate risk classification and management.
Standardization Regulatory frameworks provide a standardized approach to evaluating and approving SaMD, ensuring that they meet established quality and safety standards.
Global harmonization The IMDRF's global collaboration aims to establish internationally agreed-upon documents, fostering a consistent regulatory framework for SaMD.

In conclusion, the regulation of SaMDs is vital for patient safety and the reliability of healthcare technology. However, achieving regulatory compliance is a complex and challenging process due to diverse requirements, evolving landscapes, and the need for stringent documentation and quality control. Collaboration with regulatory experts and ongoing vigilance is essential for SaMD developers to navigate these challenges successfully.

Challenges in SaMD development

Developing SaMD comes with its own set of challenges. Terms such as “term gap," testing requirements, quality management system (QMS) control, and documentation need careful consideration. The tech team involved in SaMD development faces intricate challenges, requiring a strategic approach for successful product development.

Let’s explore the abovementioned challenges and ways to overcome them.

Terminology gap

One of the first hurdles in developing SaMD is the terminology gap. Medical professionals and software developers often speak different languages, so bridging this gap and ensuring that both sides understand each other’s needs and requirements is essential.

Solution: Interdisciplinary communication

Encouraging open and continuous communication between medical experts and software developers is crucial. Establishing interdisciplinary teams where medical professionals and developers collaborate from the project’s beginning can help ensure that the software meets the medical standards and requirements.

Testing requirements

Testing SaMD is a complex task. Ensuring its accuracy, reliability, and safety is of paramount importance. However, defining the appropriate testing protocols can be challenging.

Solution: Risk-based testing

Developers can adopt a risk-based approach to testing. By identifying potential risks associated with the SaMD, they can prioritize testing efforts accordingly. Additionally, collaborating with regulatory bodies and following their guidelines on testing can provide clarity and ensure compliance.

Quality Management System (QMS) control

Maintaining a robust QMS is essential for SaMD development, as it ensures the consistency and reliability of the product. However, implementing and maintaining an effective QMS can be resource-intensive.

Solution: Automated QMS

Leveraging automation tools and technologies can streamline QMS processes. Automated documentation, tracking, and reporting systems can help in managing quality more efficiently while reducing the administrative burden.


Documentation is a critical aspect of SaMD development, as it is required for regulatory compliance. Managing extensive documentation throughout the development lifecycle can be overwhelming.

Solution: Document management systems

Implementing document management systems can simplify the process of creating, storing, and organizing documentation. These systems can also facilitate collaboration among team members and help ensure that documentation is up-to-date and readily accessible.


In the fast-paced world of Software as a Medical Device, being well-informed about its nuances, regulations, and challenges is essential for industry professionals and those driving the future of healthcare technology. As we’ve examined the definition and regulations of SaMD, observed its practical applications in the Swiss healthcare sector, and explored the differences between SaMD and non-SaMD software, it’s clear that this field has enormous transformative potential.

At Modeso, we are actively engaged in this dynamic healthtech landscape, leveraging our expertise as a versatile software development company. We understand the intricacies of SaMD, its regulatory requirements, and its applications. Modeso is well-prepared to assist industry stakeholders in navigating this complex terrain, offering insights, solutions, and strategic guidance that can contribute significantly to the future of their medical technology. Let’s team up to drive innovation and success. Contact Modeso today and shape the future with us!

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